Yeast is commonly present on normal human skin and in areas of moisture, such as the mouth and vagina. Our immune system normally keeps the growth and proliferation of yeast in check but when it fails, infection may occur.
Yeast cells are normally not found in the urine of healthy individuals. The term "yeast" is often used with infections caused by fungi. Yeast cells in urine may be contaminants or represent a true yeast infection.
Contamination can be differentiated from colonization or infection by obtaining a new urine sample to verify funguria. A carefully performed, clean-voided, midstream sample is usually satisfactory.
The majority of fungal urinary tract infection (UTIs) are caused by a type of yeast called Candida albicans. Yeast infection of the urinary tract mainly affect the bladder or the kidneys.
The patients with yeast infections of the bladder and kidneys usually experience frequent and painful urination with small amounts of urine each time, urgency and possibly pain in the center of the lower abdomen.
Candida species can often be found by chance in a routine urinalysis or urine culture in asymptomatic patients. Antifungal therapy is not usually indicated, as asymptomatic candiduria resolves spontaneously in most patients.
Yeast in urine (candiduria) is a common finding in hospitalised patients, especially those in intensive care units who may have multiple predisposing factors, including diabetes mellitus, indwelling urinary catheters and exposure to antibiotics.